[TCML] The Development of the Alternator Powered Tesla Coil
harvich at yahoo.com
Sat Nov 29 01:39:46 MST 2008
The Development of the Alternator Powered Tesla Coil
An ordinary Delco Remy car alternator with diodes removed to output 3 phases of 456 hz to power a tesla coil via pole pig transformer is shown. It can be shown and argued by voltage and amperage measurements that the alternator can input more energy to the TC then the 60hz 15,000 volt/ 30 ma NST, and this is quite unexpected to say the least since only one of three phases of the AC alternator are utilized. The 456 hz TC utilizes a smaller primary and 2.5 times the capacity the the NST design utilizes.
In the alternator/pole pig connection I have procured a special situation whereby the capacitance employed in the TC primary is reflected through the pole pig primary connection to the alternator stator windings so as to resonate producing two useful effects, but first the understanding of the principle of maximum energy transfer is noted, so that the comparison of actual currents and voltages can be compared to this theory of maximum energy transfer. Generally speaking the two specifications noting the ability of the source of emf to produce power are given; these are the open circuit voltage without a load attached, and the current that source can deliver when a short is applied. What the maximum energy transfer theorem implies is that when the open circuit voltage is cut in half by the amount of load attached, this is the point of maximum energy transfer, but in this situation only half of the short rating of available amperage conduction is
available. Thus the maximum power or voltage times amperage from the source is actually each of these ratings cut in half and then multiplied together, yielding one quarter of what would be available if the power ratings of open circuit voltage and short measurement of amperage were simply multiplied together. Thus this maximum power output of the NST should be [15,000 V* .03A]/4 = 112.5 watts. Now the same procedure is applied to the alternator phase as a source of power. Because of the fact that the pole face field rotor becomes remanently magnetized,( in the correct polarity determined by its spin), the moment the alternator is turned on these voltage and amperage ratings become apparent. All three phases then read 1.6 -1.7 volts and a short of one of the phases shows a delivery of 1.35 A. Now the pole pig is attached to one of the phases with the addition of an amperage meter set on its highest scale without the secondary load of the TC primary
attached. This one threw me a loop because on the testing of two different higher voltage transformers, both amperage readings of the non loaded primary read 0 Amps. Apparently the open secondary condition of the pole pig transformer that determines the highest impedance of the primary has a non-linear response to the increase of frequency, where here the increase in frequency being 7.6 fold would mean 7.6 times less primary amperage conduction to the unloaded pole pig primary, but that may not be happening and later the actual ratio of expected currents vs derived currents can be calculated to show the non-linear increase of impedance with increased frequency. This has been noted before with the stolen high induction air core coils that exhibited 60 henry at 60 hz, but exhibited values near 200 henry at these frequencies.
Now the first attempt of showing an alternator powered TC involved first making one at 60 hz powered by the NST, and that also was problematic but we arrived at a hit/miss solution with a 2 ft secondary with a larger top capacity that improved performance so as to exhibit 4 inch arcing. This model uses 20 nf capacity. When the alternator/pole pig combination was substituted as the power source the same coil only delivered 1 inch arcing, but even this was a first. Jumping the gun a bit, the alternator/ pole pig power source was reexamined to see if the capacity in the TC primary was near the maximum energy transfer point. A turn on of the alternator yielded 3 phases of 1.6 volts before the field is energized, where the middle phase 2 is selected for the pole pig. As mentioned no amperage is recorded into the pole pig primary until the secondary capacitive load of the TC primary is added. With the arc gap separated and the field non- energized a series of
amperage conduction and voltage output tests are made. The short as mentioned yields 1.35 A of a single phase, and an open circuit value of 1.6 volts. When the TC primary value of 20 nf was added to the pole pig secondary its primary amperage went from 0 to .66 A, but the source voltage of 1.6 Volts did not decrease its value to half, which is what a purely resistive load should do by the premises of the maximum energy transfer theorem, where it is assumed that having reached half of the short value of conduction will also reduce the source voltage by half. Instead what happens is that the stator voltage is increased by one third to 2.2 volts. So initially measuring things on the high voltage end for these circumstances, and also considering that since such low voltages are being employed non-linearities of voltage transformation may exist since this is the very low end of the saturation curve of the transformer, but nevertheless the first recording of
output voltages showed 123.5 volts without the capacity attached and 184 volts when it is attached. Now all these measurements and comparisons of ratios seem to become distorted from their initially measured values at this lowest possible level of measurement conducted with an un-energized field, and these differences can be shown in comparison at real operation with an energized field with a 10 Amp pole pig primary consumption, and after the TC had been redesigned to employ the nearest correct resonant secondary capacity to be determined by these unenergized field tests to be noted next. In that case after the TC primary was redesigned and the correct C value used, it was noted that by sending a third of an amp through the field, this created three phases of 7.1 volts with no load attached, but then attaching the TC primary to the pole pig secondary resulted in the primary stator voltage now going up 60 % to 11.5 volts. Thus at only a 7 volt unloaded
stator it becomes 11.5 volts conducting 10 amps into the pole pig primary, and the alternator can be pressed to do triple this duty for short periods of time, sending near 30 amps into the pole pig primary.
Now getting back to the un-energized field tests, the next thing to be explored was the value of primary amperage consumption once the registered level of 184 volts at the pole pig secondary was shorted, and this yielded only a 1 amp primary consumption, when in fact a direct short of the stator lines connected to the current limited supply of the alternator yielded 1.35 A. This at first puzzled me so then obviously the next thing to do was to try various values of capacity for a pole pig secondary load. The capacities being used are a series string of five .1 uf values yeilding 20 nf. Taking one out of the string yields 25 nf, two taken out yeilds 33nf, and next a value of 50 nf. Note how the adjacent stator phase voltages having no load are influenced by phase 2's pole pig primary load.
Un-energized field tests initially yield three phases of 1.6 volts. With 20 nf pole pig secondary load the stator voltages and amperages become;
Stator phase 1; 1.6 volts
Stator phase 2; 2.2 volts yielding .66 A to pole pig primary
Stator phase 3; 2.0 volts Using 25 nf phase 2 then outputs .9 A with its stator voltage rising to 2.3 volts, showing 204 volts at the arc bars. Using 33 nf; Stator phase 1) 1.5 volts Stator phase 2) 2.8 volts yields 1.55 A primary draw, it has exceeded its short value of 1.35A and also yielding 253 volts at arc bars Stator phase 3) 2.5 volts
Using 50 nf; This begins to load down stator phase 1, which along with phase 3 is unloaded, so we wonder why the dramatic loss here on phase 1 which gets now get reduced to what the rms voltage meter interprets as 0.7 volts and now some scopings are made of the phase angle differences between the affected phases. Initially it is assumed that the 3 phase alternator distributes three maximum voltages 120 degrees out of phase and an unloaded scoping of phases 2 and 3 as a dual channel scoping shows this fact, but first the proper procedure for making these scope observations is noted. First an isolated ground for the scope itself is desired which is enabled by using a 2 prong plug into the wall voltage instead of three prong plug for the oscilloscope which is simply achieved by use of a two prong adapter. Now it is also observed that the common ground connection between the scope leads themselves is in fact a common ground point, except for perhaps very
expensive scopes having dual isolated grounds on each channel. What this means is that the first channel to be scoped uses both the probe ending and the smaller clip as the ground. But the second channel when added only uses the probe lead, and its ground connection is left open. The attachments for the measurement of the adjacent phase once the first two connections are made must be referenced to the placement of the ground clip on the initial connection, which becomes channel 1 making a voltage measurement of phase 2. The alternator delta output has three points of voltage delivery, and to reference the phase 2's primary connection to be loaded by the pole pig secondary load of 50 nf, to the phase 3 which also sees a voltage rise from phase 2's reactive loading, the common ground clip of the first channel is made to be the point of delivery on the delta stator where both phase 2 and 3 have in common, and channel 2's probe lead is given the remaining
delta point not yet attached with its common ground lead unattached. In other words the common ground leads must not be shorted in making the dual channel scoping observations, and since there are three points of voltage reference and four points available to make these voltage reference observations, one of the common leads must be omitted. To reference phase 2 and 3 the common ground of only one channel is placed on the delta triangle on the point where the phases themselves are in common, and thus to measure the referenced voltage between the other combination of phases 1 and 2 the common lead is changed to the point in common on the delta triangle that the measured phases themselves have in common. The first two dual channel scopings are referenced between phases 2 and 3, both of which receive a voltage rise after phase 2's addition of the pole pig primary load.
Three Wire/ Dual Channel Scoping of 3 phase Alternator between phases 2 and 3.
http://deanostoybox .com/temp/ Picture%20143. jpg
After addition of the pole pig to phase two the following changes in actual phase angle shown by scoping between the phases are noted;
Stator phase 2 shows 2.6 volts yielding 2.4 A primary draw, a 80 % increase in the alternator established current limitation and 262 volts at the arc bars! Note here another discrepancy in that the pole pig normally gives a 64/1 voltage rise ratio but here it has become 100 fold. A measurement of the actual current that should ensue for a 50 nf capacitive reactance at 456 hz having an ohmic resistance of 6984 ohms @ 262 volts however shows that these values are in agreement with current meter readingsof 37.5 ma on the secondary end, and it is seen that although the voltage rise ratio has been expanded, the current ratio of primary amperage consumption and secondary amperage output has been preserved at 64/1. Note here also that the open circuit voltage vs capacitively loaded operating voltage has been increased some 60 %/ in reference to the previous dual channel scoping
Stator phase 3) 2.6 volts
Phase Angle Change between phases 2 & 3 with Pole Pig Ferromagnetic Resonance
http://deanostoybox .com/temp/ Picture%20146. jpg
Note the pulsed nature on phase 2, and the stretching of the former 120 phase angle towards that of a 180 one. This scoping shows something initially incomprehensible. EVIDENTLY THE THREE FOLD DIVISION OF VOLTAGE REFERENCE POINTS IN TIME DELIVERED BY THE THREE PHASE WYE CONNECTED STATOR WINDINGS PRODUCING A DELTA OUTPUT CAN BE ALTERED IN TIME THEMSELVES! As an apparent result of this the voltage normally available on phase 1 has been robbed from to provide an excess of voltage on its adjacent phases, where its rms voltage reading shows only .7 volts. We might expect that since the timings of voltage delivery have been brought near 180 degrees between phases 2 and 3, this leaves very little phase angle difference left in 360 degrees of total time available between cycles on phase 1 which we then term a “neutrally” timed phase because of its loss of voltage; however we still wish to investigate this timing issue by making a scoping to be made
referencing phase 1 to the other phases where here phase 1 is referenced to the pig draw of phase 2:
Near 180 phase shift referenced to neutral angle in time
http://deanostoybox .com/temp/ Picture%20148. jpg
What becomes odd here is the non sinusoidal shape of the neutral phase which the rms voltage meter interprets as .7 volts,and all the scopings are made at 2/volts/div. Because of this waveform shape the phasing angle difference of the adjacent phase is hard to determine, but we would certainly expect that the peaks of each waveform should co-incide better. In fact the smaller dual peaked portion of phase 1's waveform does this, but its larger one peaking at some 1.8 volts appears in the timing reference point when the adjacent phase is producing 2 volts in opposite polarity!??. .. Thus here the presentation of an incredible premise can be made;
THE CREATION OF THREE OPPOSITES IN TIME.
What I have just shown is two oppositely phased voltages whose highest peaks deliver almost opposite polarities in time, thus the net difference between the voltages is almost the sum of their individual voltages. Next I showed the voltage reference points to the neutral phasing showing that the adjacent phase voltage can still have better then an equal and opposite simultaneously created voltage in time. I have also been able use pancake coils positioned in space at certain angles to each other to interact to show an impossible phase angle greater then 180 degrees as we define it, in that the net difference between the individual voltages in time is greater then the sum of these quantities, but this issue has not been scoped out yet to see what nuances of waveforms may exist there. Again the analogy of dimensional progression is applied here. A two dimensional flat equilateral triangle has three internal 60 degree angles, adding to 180. If we instead
expand the internal area of this triangle by superimposing it on the 3-D curvature of a sphere, we find that now the individual angles become greater then the sum adding to 180, according to the ratio of the triangles internal area vs the total surface area of the sphere. If we just use a small portion of the sphere's surface area for the triangle the internal angle change is negligible, but if the triangle is expanded to encompass 1/8th of the total surface area of the sphere, its internal 60 degree angle will have increased 50% to 90 degrees. Now the analogy becomes expanding the three 120 degree phase angles in time 50 % greater to that of three 180 phase angles in time. Somehow we presume that now a 4th dimensional coordinate has been added, with the result that time has been expanded, and a circle in time of phase angle differences no longer adds to 360 degrees, but in excess to that. A 440 degree phasing measurement is shown at
13 meter reading of 3 DSR's(Delta Series Resonances of .15 Henry)/ showing interphasal voltage differences between phasings.
http://tech. groups.yahoo. com/group/ teslafy/files/ IRC/Dsc00509. jpg
Using 100nf now the demand begins to exceed the supply and the stator phases are all reduced to
1) 0.7 volts
2) 0.5 volts yielding .68 A primary draw producing 91 volts at secondary, showing perhaps another unusual thing where we cannot predict the secondary voltage output merely by the primary amperage draw but must also consider the input primary voltage.
3) 1.4 volts.
So obviously 50 nf becomes the first convenient value to select and by downsizing the primary from the previous NST design, superior arcing and power input seems available from the alternator 456 hz pole pig combination vs a single 60 hz NST. A higher power stator voltage reading shows that sending .8 A through field yields
1) 8.8 volts
2) 32.6 volts to pole pig primary where if we assume linearity of the 10 amp measurement @ 11.5 volts, this becomes a 28 amp draw at 32 volts input yeilding 924 watts possible input power vs the noted 112 watts for the NST example.
3) 29 volts
Note that phase 3's voltage has not yet been severely loaded down, so our next piece of work will be to add a TC system to that phase, so that two somewhat oppositely phased TC's can be interacted together at their top terminals. It now does not seem far off in speculation for a three phase TC application with three identical TC's powered by a three phase high voltage transformer, which is also at my disposal for these experiments.
To close here let us consider the voltage differences available from the NST vs pole pig/alternator combo. We might assume that 32 volts input becomes 62 fold through the pole pig transformer becomes near 2000 volts so the ratio to 15,000 volts would be 13 %. But then again this amount of energy transfers 7.6 times faster at 456 hz and multiplying .13 by 7.6 yields the original amount. But since the V term is exponential it would seem that 60 hz @ 15,000 volts should have more energy transfer, however it may be true that since the 20 nf value being used is over four times the rated current limitation of the NST secondary, that it may only charge those caps to 1/4 of its 15,000 voltage rating? And additionally the value of capacity used for the alternator pole pig combination is 2.5 times higher at 50 nf, which the NST may not even be able to fire. In any case I have made my argument that that alternator can out-power the NST with the 456 hz driven TC
here shown at
http://deanostoybox .com/temp/ DSCN3889. JPG
Harvey D Norris
Tesla Research Group; Pioneering the Applications of Interphasal Resonances http://groups.yahoo.com/group/teslafy/
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